COPD is caused by noxious particles or gas, most commonly from tobacco smoking, which triggers an abnormal inflammatory response in the lung. The diagnosis of COPD requires lung function tests. Important management strategies are smoking cessation, vaccinations, rehabilitation, and drug therapy (often using inhalers).
Some patients go on to require long-term oxygen therapy or lung transplantation. Worldwide, COPD ranked as the sixth leading cause of death in 1990. It is projected to become the fourth leading cause of death worldwide by 2030, due to an increase in smoking rates and demographic changes in many countries. COPD is the third leading cause of death in the U.S., and the economic burden of COPD in the U.S. in 2007 was $42.6 billion in health care costs and lost productivity.